This history of Saint Andrew’s Windows is based upon research by the late Laban G. Lively. Additional information has been added by Nancy Turner. It is reconstructed for presentation on the WWW by Joe Daurril. Color photos were provided by our former Senior Warden, Chris Cobb.
In the Middle Ages, stained glass was a powerful communications device for instructing a mainly illiterate population. The life of Christ, the deeds of the saints, the adventures of kings and heroes were told vividly and wordlessly. Long before people were able to read and write, the Great Cathedrals were called the Peoples’ Bibles.
More modernly, Biblical quotations and occasionally other messages were added to the “picture windows.” Symbols and signs found their way into the designs to reinforce messages and, often, the attributes of the personage being portrayed in the glass. A bee sometimes appears in a stained glass portrait of the Virgin Mary. The population of the Middle Ages labored along with nature. They knew the attributes of the bee – diligence, work and good order. They knew the bee produced honey, the symbol of sweetness. They knew that the Virgin Mary had produced the sweetest person we will ever know when she gave birth to Jesus Christ. Picturing the Virgin Mary with a bee said more about who this wonderful woman was than a thousand words.
This tour starts at the south wall of the Transept, and moves clockwise with respect to the interior of the church.
The two windows flanking the St. Martin window list the names of St. Andrew’s parishioners who served in the Armed Forces during World War I.
The center window in the south transept depicts St. Martin of Tours, the patron saint of soldiers, and is dedicated to Dwight Jarvis (confirmed into St. Andrew’s on January 10, 1897 and died July 8,1904 at age 68). Given the death date of 1904, it is likely this was one of the first new windows installed in our present church.
St. Martin was French and the fleur de lis, a symbol of France, seen at the top of the window plus the fact the figure is flanked by windows honoring soldiers supports the probability the figure depicted in the garb of a crusader is, indeed, the patron saint of soldiers. A story connected with St. Martin says he saw a beggar while riding down the road and immediately split his cloak with his sword giving the beggar half. Although this gesture does not seem worthy of legend, it was very unusual for anyone to stop on the dangerous, thief-filled highways of the Middle Ages to help their fellowman … let alone a lofty nobleman to help a lowly beggar.
The armor St. Martin wears is certainly appropriate to his period of life and occupation but it also has a symbolic Christian meaning. Armor symbolizes protection, security and witness. Paul encouraged his converts to “put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil … that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having girded your loins with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod our feet with the equipment of the gospel of peace; besides all these, taking the shield of faith, with which you can quench all the flaming darts of the evil one. And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.” (Ephesians 6:11-17)
The St. Martin window and the St. Michael window immediately facing it across the nave and in the north transept appear to have been made by the same stained glass studio. Each features an architectural rendering below the central figure in the window and each boasts glass inside this architectural feature that carries an amazing iridescence and three-dimensionality. Florescent oranges, pinks and greens flame from the glass as the sun filters through the window. The St. Michael window is signed by its maker, Geisser Studio in New York. The St. Martin window is unsigned. Interestingly, both St. Martin of Tours and St. Michael fought for a cause.
Of particular craftsmanship and beauty in the St. Martin window are the stained glass pieces in the lower section of the window and around the frame which are designed to look like brown marble. The glass actually seems to provide a marble base for the architectural piece that rests on it as a marble foundation would hold the marble columns in the three-dimensional world.
The two windows flanking the St. Martin window list the names of St. Andrew’s parishioners who served in the Armed Forces during World War I. Those whose names are followed with a star did not survive the conflict. Although all of these men and women have now gone on, their families carry on their legacy at St. Andrews. So many of these names are familiar including the Crowder, Cowart, Mullen, Taliaferro, Ashton, Hunter families and many others including one of our priests, The Rev. Henry Alfred Brown. The borders of the two windows should be noticed. The purple color at the top of the windows is particularly rich and full of depth.
An angel stands outside a tomb from which the closing-stone has been rolled away. The angel lovingly points to the empty sepluchre. Across the bottom of the picture is the legend: “He is not here, for He is risen.”
It is Easter Morning and Jesus has risen from the grave. According to the Bible, two women (St. Mathew, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James) or three women (St. Mark – Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome) have come to the sepluchre where Jesus was taken after dying on the cross on Good Friday to prepare his body for burial. This service was not taken care of on Friday afternoon when Jesus was lowered from the cross because it was too late in the day, almost sundown, and this work could not be performed on the Sabbath. The Sabbath was over at sundown on Saturday; annointing could have been done at anytime thereafter. The two (three) women have come at first light on Sunday morning … the first practical time for performing this service of love.
As the women approach, they find the stone rolled away from the opening. They are horrified to find Jesus’ body has gone but in the tomb stands an angel who comforts them saying: “He is not here, for He is risen.”
None of the women who have come to prepare Jesus for burial is pictured in this beautiful piece of stained glass, only the angel and his everlasting message of comfort. The lily, the symbol of the Resurrection, figures prominently in the window design as it does on the altar at Easter time.
The He Is Risen window probably was part of the original wooden church that was St. Andrew’s from 1883 until the new church was completed after 1904. Both this window and the St. Luke the Good Physician window which stands next to it were probably built at the same time. Both have a rather unique border of raised, faceted glass known as turtlebacks as part of the design of the lower portion of the window.
This window depicting the first Easter morning is dedicated to Nannie Marshall Johnson Griffin (Aug. 3, 1873-Dec. 28,1969) and James Arthur Griffin (May 4, 1874-Oct. 9,1958) who were the parents of Nannie Christian, Jack Griffin and the late Dick Griffin. Mr. Griffin was a founder and the long-time president of Exchange National Bank (now NCNB). He was also a founder of the University of Tampa and the Community Chest and a charter member of Gasparilla and the Rotary Club.
St. Luke, the author of the Gospel of St. Luke, is pictured with an ox. In Christian art, the artists used a number of methods to identify the authors of the four gospels: a) the person shown must be a man, b) he is almost invariably wearing a halo, c) he will usually be in clothing from the first century A.D and d) he will be holding in his hands a writing tablet and stylus (ancient pen) or using the tablet and stylus.
Once a figure has been identified as one of the Gospel authors, or evangelists, artists distinguished which saint was being pictured by drawing on one of four symbols – the ox, the lion, the eagle or man. St. Luke is generally portrayed with an ox for his Gospel is full of the sacrifice and atonement of Christ and, in Biblical times, the ox was the highest form of Jewish sacrifice.
St. Mark is pictured with a lion, the king of beasts, for St. Mark’s Gospel has a special sense of dignity – royal dignity – and his first chapter refers to “a voice crying in the wilderness.” Up until the Crusades the wild lion was well known in Palestine and his roar, especially at night, must have been a chilling voice indeed. (The Crusaders killed all Palestinian lions.) In early Christian times, the lion was a symbol of Jesus’ resurrection. Mark seems to dwell on that resurrection.
St. John the Evangelist is pictured with an eagle. His is considered to be the most spiritual of the four Gospels, taking the reader to the greatest spiritual heights. The eagle was thought to fly higher than any other creature thus closer to God. The bird, then, had a broader perspective than any other creature and his keen eyesight could be compared to St. John’s keen insight concerning Jesus and His mission.
St. Mathew’s Gospel stresses the manhood of Christ. He, therefore, is not pictured with any type of animal but as himself – a man alone.
The use of symbols with the evangelists began about the fourth century. St. Jerome (early fifth century) referred to this trend. Their origin can actually be traced to the Old Testament Book of Ezekiel. About the year 200 A.D. Irenaeus, an early Christian scholar, perceived a relationship between the presence of four creatures in Ezekiel’s first vision and the fact that there were four Gospel accounts. Moreover, he also sensed a correlation between the four faces of Ezekiel’s dream/vision creatures (lion, ox, eagle and man) and the four Gospel records. However, it is only since medieval times that our religious arts have settled upon the accepted precise correlation of symbol with Gospel writer. Those symbols; lion – Mark, ox – Luke, eagle – John and man – Mathew; remain today.
St. Andrews window honoring St. Luke the Good Physician shows the saint, pen or stylus in hand, working away on his Gospel extolling Jesus’ sacrifice for our sins. The ox lies at the side of the “beloved physician,” as St. Paul referred to St. Luke. St. Luke was probably practicing in Athens when he heard and met St. Paul. It is probable Paul’s chronic illness (his “thorn in the flesh,” as Paul himself said) convinced Luke that God’s purpose for him was to become Paul’s traveling companion, which he did. In this role, Luke not only was of great service to the frail Paul but he also became keenly aware of Paul’s message and activities and was brought into contact with other early Christians. By virtue of his education and his association with Paul and the early Christians, Luke became uniquely qualified to write the Gospel bearing his name.
The window is dedicated to one of Tampa’s beloved physicians, Dr. John Perry Wall, who was born on Sept. 17,1836 while his parents were “under siege by the Seminole Indians” just south of the St. Mary’s River near present day Jasper, Florida. He died on April 18, 1895 while delivering a speech at the annual meeting of the Florida Medical Association in Gainesville.
For a long time, this window depicting a young woman holding a golden cylindrical container and standing in front of an open window was considered to be one of the virgins from the Parable of the Foolish Virgins. The virgins waited for the bridegroom (Christ) to come to the wedding feast but soon ran out of oil. While they were out getting more, the bridegroom came and left and they missed him entirely. But the woman wears a halo denoting sainthood and the fact she is a real person as opposed to the fictitious character of a parable.
In all likelihood, the woman picture in the stained glass is St. Clare of Assisi. Clare was born to a well-to-do knightly family of Assisi, a small city about 20 miles northeast of Rome. At eighteen she left home and soon, under the aegis of St. Francis of Assisi, she established an order of nuns dedicated to serving God and to absolute poverty, both individually and as an order. The group became known formally as the Second Order of Saint Francis and informally as The Poor Clares. They were housed in a convent not far from Assisi.
During his struggle to bring more and more of Europe, beginning with Italy, under his rule, Frederick II of Italy, the Holy Roman Emperor, hired and employed as allies certain Saracen or Moorish military contingents from Africa. These Moors, as part of their compensation and as a technique of psychological warfare, would storm and sack all cities which did not immediately surrender to Frederick. The Moors stood at the edge of the city of Assisi readying themselves for destruction. Clare sent for the Reserved Eucharistic Sacrament from her convent’s altar. With the sacrament in her arms, Clare went to the wide dining hall window and faced the Moorish commander. He saw Clare, standing to confront him with her precious burden as her only defense, and fell back in consternation. He ordered a retreat and Assisi was saved. Many other miracles have been attributed to St. Clare who was canonized in 1255 just two years after her death.
The Andrew’s window shows St. Clare turning to peer out of her window to the land below, the case containing the sacrament clutched in her hand. A curtain rod holding what appears to be a green velvet curtain stands in the window about halfway up its height. That same curtain and window treatment is repeated in the St. John’s window next to the St. Clare window.
The St. Clare window is dedicated to Arthur Allen Simpson (May 14,1905 – Dec. 3,1983). Mr. Simpson was a senior partner with the law firm of Macfarlane, Ferguson. He was married to Geraldine Lesley Simpson and is the father of Nathan, Lesley, Allen and Arthur who grew up at St. Andrew’s.
This portrait of St. John the Evangelist meets all the symbolism indicating a Gospel author discussed in the St. Luke window. He holds a stylus and writing tablet and appears to be in the process of writing and a halo surrounds his head symbolizing sainthood. St. John is pictured with an eagle to distinguish him from the three other Gospel writers. His Gospel is considered the most spiritual of the four. As the eagle is said to fly to the greatest heights of any bird, St. John’s Gospel takes the reader to the greatest spiritual heights. It is in this moving Gospel that Jesus tells us who he is “The Bread of Life” (John 6:35), “From Above” (John 8:23), “From Before Abraham” (John 8:58), “The Light of the World” (John 9:5), “The Door” (John 10:7), “The Good Shepherd” [which we will see pictured in a window on the west Wall] (John 10:14)
It is interesting to note the similarity between the St. John and the St. Clare of Assisi window next to it. Both portray the central figures framed in a window and both windows have the same curtain and rod design. Obviously, the windows were built at the same time by the same stained glass studio.
The St. John The Evangelist window is dedicated to James Robinson McKee and Almira Phelps McKee.
Graphically beautiful, this window is a sudden departure from the historic portraits of saints and Biblical events and scriptures depicted in all but one of the other windows in the church. Instead we have five circles arranged to actually form a cross. In the center circle are the symbolic Greek letters “IHS” – I (iota), H (eta) and S (sigma) – the first three letters in the Greek word for Jesus. These letters are also seen on the priests’ vestments, the altar linens and in many of the carved stone and wood memorials in the church.
Given as an Easter offering in 1892, the window graphically symbolizes Easter. An Easter lily dominates the top section of the window. When lilies are used in connection with Jesus, they symbolize the Resurrection – thus, Easter. When lilies are pictured with the Virgin Mary, they become a symbol of purity and are often incorporated into pictures of the Annunciation. When associated with St. Clare of Assisi, the lily symbolizes chastity. The fleur de lis, a variety of the lily, is an emblem of royalty. It was chosen by King Clovis as an emblem of his purification through baptism and has remained the emblem of the kings of France. Jesus himself is, of course, all that the lily symbolizes in other figures – he is pure, chaste and the king of kings.
The word “Alleluia” is bannered across the window and at no time is that celebrative word more joyously or appropriately said than at Easter… “Alleluia, Christ is risen.” “He is risen, indeed, Alleluia.”
The Randolph Window and the Easter Offering window seem paired. Whether when originally designed or when they were moved over from the wooden church to our current church is subject to speculation. It is more likely they were originally made to go with each other. They are the only graphic, as opposed to pictorial, windows in the church and each plays heavily on the symbolism of the lily or fleur de lis. Each has the symbols of Jesus as its central theme.
The window is dedicated to Marion E. Randolph (January 31, 1849 to December 6, 1890) who was the daughter of the legendary Captain James McKay.
The central focus of the window is three circles, each carrying a symbol of Jesus. The top circle portrays two Greek letters – alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, and omega, the last letter in the Greek alphabet. In Christian belief, Jesus is the first and the last according to His revelation to John: “I am the Alpha and the Omega; says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” (Rev. 1:8) The second circle displays the letters “IHS” which, as mentioned in the Easter Window represent the first three letters in the Greek word for Jesus. The last circle holds the letters “XR,” the Greek letters chi and rho. These two letters in Greek translate to the first three letters in the Greek word “Christos.” In Christian parlance the “chi” and “rho” when used together always refer to Jesus’ title “Christ” or, in Greek “Christos.”
The reference to Jesus continues in the fleur de lis pattern, the symbol of the Resurrection, running diagonally across the window and in the fleur de lis in the pattern above and the inverted design below. The words “They rest from their labors and their works do follow them” are incorporated in the diagonal design. The quotation, like God’s reference to himself as the alpha and omega, is found in the Book of Revelations 13:14. The full quotation of the angelic message revealed to John reads: “And I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Write this: Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord henceforth.’ ‘Blessed indeed,’ says the Spirit, ‘that they may rest from their labors, for their works do follow them!”
Clearly a pair, the Children’s Window and the Good Shepherd Window to the right were donated by the New Church Guild and dedicated on St. Andrew’s Day, 1914. The Children’s Window was given “To the Glory of God and in loving memory of the Children of St. Andrew’s Parish now safely gathered into the Savior’s Arms.” This beautiful portrait shows Jesus carrying a baby in one arm and lovingly caressing the head of a young child. The message from Matthew XVIII:10 reads: “Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, that in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my father which is in heaven.”
There are two instances in which Jesus interacted with the Apostles in the matter of children. Once, when the Apostles sought to repress mothers crowding their children upon Jesus so He would bless them. This instance is told in The Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke with Marks (Mark 10:13-16) reading: And they brought young children to Him that He should touch them; and His disciples rebuked those that brought them. But when Jesus saw it, He was much displeased, and said unto them, “Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not; for such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, whoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.”
It is Jesus’ other encounter with children and the Apostles that is quoted in this window. This encounter, only found in the Gospel of Matthew, was initiated by Jesus when He called a Little child unto Him, and set him in the midst of them, and said “… “Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, that in heaven their an gels do always behold the face of my father which is in heaven.”
Both the Children’s Window and the Good Shepherd Window have strong architectural features incorporated in their design rather reminiscent of the architectural features seen in the St. Martin of Tours and St. Michael and the Dragon Windows in the north and south transept.
The picture is a tall, full length portrait of Jesus with a lamb cuddled on his arm and is clearly a representation of Jesus’ description of himself; “I am the good shepherd” which he mentions twice in one breath. John 10:11 and John 10:14: I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. He who is a hireling and not a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees; and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. He flees because he is a hireling and cares nothing for the sheep. I am the good shepherd; I know my own and my own know me, as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep.
Very appropriately, the window to the Good Shepherd was given in commemoration of the episcopate of the Rt. Rev. William Crane Gray, Bishop of Southern Florida, 1892-1913, by the New Church Guild. The shepherd has long been a bishop’s symbol and we generally sec a bishop carrying a shepherd’s hook or staff when he processes down the aisle of the church during services.
The inscription on the Good Shepherd Window is from Timothy IV: 7-8: I have fought a good fight, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love His appearing. Bishop Gray was a very popular and beloved bishop who helped• guide and protect St. Andrews as a good shepherd guides and protects his flock.
And Jesus, walking by the Sea of Galilee, saw two brothers, Simon, called Peter, and Andrew, his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, “Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.” And they straightway left their nets and followed Him. Matthew 4:18-20
Centered high above and between the Good Shepherd and Children’s Window is one of the most beautiful and, probably, least seen windows in our church. The rose (round-shaped) window honors our namesake – St. Andrew. Probably the best place to view the window is from the steps going into the sanctuary. You might want to look up the next time you leave the Communion rail.
St. Andrew is portrayed in his later years. Grey-haired and haloed, he stands in front of a large, wooden X-shaped cross, technically known as the “Cross Saltire” from the old Latin word “saltus” for leap. The reference is to the two legs of this cross which suggest the arms and legs of a leaping person. Most commonly, however, the X-shaped cross is called the “St. Andrew Cross” for it was St. Andrew who, about to be martyred on the cross for his Christian beliefs, requested he be put to death on a cross that did not have the same shape as the cross Christ died on. He felt he was unworthy to die as Christ had. His request was granted. Though there were others crucified on an X-cross, in the world of Christian symbology, when a man and an X-cross are pictured together, that man is St. Andrew the Apostle. The St. Andrew cross is considered a sign of humility in suffering.
In the window, St. Andrew is placed in a rural setting with a rustic fence and rolling hills – possibly a reference to Scotland which considers St. Andrew its patron saint. He carries a palm branch pressed against his right shoulder. The palm, among Romans, was considered a symbol of victory. When the palm is pictured with a Christian figure, it symbolizes the martyrs triumph over death.
There is relatively little in the Bible about the man, Andrew. However, we must remember that when the Bible account of the Apostles’ activities mentions them as a group, St. Andrew is to be included unless a precise Bible statement mentions he is not there.
Andrew and his brother Simon Peter were apparently natives of Bethsaida but when Jesus met them they were living in Capernaum. The brothers were partners and commercial fishermen. They were friends of and possibly part-time partners with another pair of brothers, also fishermen, James and John. These four, and perhaps others, went on a trip south, probably to where the River Jordan empties into the Dead Sea. They went to hear John the Baptist. According to the Gospel of St. John account of Andrews first meeting with Jesus, one day when Andrew and another were with the Baptizer, Jesus walked by. John the Baptizer identified Jesus to Andrew and his companion as “The Lamb of God” (John 1:29). Andrew and his companion left John and began following Jesus around.
Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and He said unto them, “What seek ye?” They said unto Him, “Rabbi (which is to say, being interpreted, Master), where dwellest thou?” He saith unto them, “Come and see.” They came and saw where He dwelt and abode with Him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. One of the two that heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. He first findeth his own brother, Simon, and saith unto Him, “We have found the Messiah,” which is being interpreted, the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus.” (John 1: 35-42)
A second occasion when Andrew is recorded as having brought others to Jesus is a part of the miracle when Jesus fed the five thousand. Jesus’ preaching and miracles had held a great crowd until it was late in the day. Jesus expressed concern that the multitude had had nothing to eat and hinted to Philip that someone should go to town and buy Bread for them. Philip was overcome at the probably high cost of any such move. At this point, Andrew brought to Jesus a small boy who had a few small loaves and two small fish. Andrew almost apologizes for having done so, saying “But what is so little among so many?” (John 6: 8-9) Jesus took charge, multiplied the loaves and fishes and fed the five thousand.
Though Biblical information on Andrew is scant, tradition is not.
Tradition makes Andrew a preacher in many lands – widely among the nations south of the Black Sea and especially in Scythia, north of the sea. The ancient world deemed the Scythians as absolutely the worst in savagery. Bengel describes them as “more barbarous than the barbarians.” Josephus says they were “little different than wild beasts.” Even so, tradition affirms that Andrew caused many Scythians to know Jesus. As Scythia lay in what has become southern Russia, Andrew is, to many, the Patron saint of Russian Christians.
After Scythia, Andrew returned to Greece and journeyed to the seaport of Patras, some seventy miles west of Corinth. There Andrew took up preaching the story of Jesus. A Greek Christian told Andrew of the apparently terminal illness of the Governor’s wife. The Governor, Aegeates, waited with sword in hand to kill himself should she die. Andrew went to her and was instrumental in her miraculous healing. She became a Christian. Aegeates’ brother had a highly prized servant who was seriously and painfully ill. Andrew went to this servant and the servant, also, was miraculously healed. Aegeates brother also became a Christian as a result.
Governor Aegeates was enraged over these two defections to the Christian faith from the pagan philosophy which he, as Governor, had established as the state religion. He had Andrew arrested. Some tradition holds that Andrew was given the opportunity to clear himself by renouncing Jesus and accepting the pagan god of Aegeates but that Andrew refused. The sentence was death by crucifixion with the further stipulation that, to prolong the agony, Andrew was to be tied, not nailed, to his cross. Andrew, feeling unworthy to die on the same type cross his Lord Jesus died upon, asked that his cross be an X-cross. Andrews request was granted. Whereupon, St. Andrew was stripped, scourged and duly tied to lis X-cross. He lingered for two days. All the while he urged Christians to be constant in the faith. He finally died of pain, exposure and exhaustion.
Because he was martyred in Greece, most Greek Christians hold Andrew to be their patron. To some, he is the Patron Saint of all Greece.
Scotland is the third country with which Andrew is identified by tradition. In the year 357, Emperor Constantine the Great had Andrew’s coffin brought to Constantinople. It is probable that this action preserved the identification of Andrew’s bones, or relics.
In the eighth century, in a dream, a monk named Regulus was instructed by an angel to take from Andrew’s relics three fingers, an arm bone, a tooth and a knee-cap. Taking these selected relics, he was to journey westward. Regulus obeyed traveling until he reached the southeast coast of Scotland near where the city of St. Andrew, its world famous golf course and the ruins of Saint Regulus Church now stand.
In about the year 930, Hungus, King of the Picts, was at war with Athelstan, King of the English. On the eve of their main battle, and probably not far from St. Regulus Church, Andrew appeared to Hungus in a dream and assured him of victory over the English. Tradition relates that when morning came, a shining white, X-shaped cross appeared in the sky above the army of the Picts. The cross soared in the sky until the Picts were victorious over the English.
The Picts had advanced with the battle cry “Saint Andrew, our Patron, be our guide.” The English were terrified seeing the cross shine and finding themselves confronted with an army of excited, enthusiastic and confident Picts, the English were routed. It is from this experience that the white cross of St. Andrew on a sky blue background became the standard of Scotland and remains so to this day. This self-same cross on a sky blue background can be seen on the shield hanging above the sanctuary arch and facing the St. Andrew window at St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church.
A kaleidoscope of colors illuminates the figure of St. John the Baptist Window and the Elijah Window adjoining it. Both were the work of the J.R. Lamb Studio of Tenafly, New Jersey and represent a very modern style of stained glass compared to our other windows. It is quite appropriate that the St. John the Baptist window and the Elijah window be placed side by side since the early Christians thought John the Baptist was Elijah come again. Elijah, you must remember, did not die an earthly death but was raised, or ascended, to heaven in a whirlwind with a chariot of fire and horses of fire leading the way. (II Kings 2:11)
In several places in the Gospels, we find John the Baptist and Elijah paired. The most prominent pairing is in Peter’s Great Confession. Jesus and the Twelve had gone north, perhaps to the area near Dan. Jesus asked of the Twelve, “Who do people say that I am?” They answered Elijah or John the Baptist. Then Jesus asked “Who do you say that I am?” Peter answered, “Thou are the Christ, the Son of the Living God!’ This answer is popularly referred to as “Peter’s Great Confession.”
Although his multi-colored clothes seem more like royal robes than the tattered, cloak of goatskins John the Baptist, “the voice crying in the wilderness,” is described as wearing in Biblical accounts of him, the artist does try to show hair on the cloak around his arm and shoulders. The words inscribed to the left “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world” (John 1:29) were spoken by John identifying Christ after his baptism. And below those words is a picture of a lamb carrying a white banner with a red cross on it. The lamb is the symbol of Christ and one of the most frequently used Christian art symbols. The banner with the cross symbolizes victory, the victory over death won by Christ’s martyrdom. The lamb, one of the most significant of animal symbols in church use, is often associated with John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, for his recognition of Jesus as the Lamb of God at His baptism. Jesus, Himself, is associated with the lamb because that animal was used for sacrifice in the Old Testament and Jesus was sacrificed for our sins in the New Testament.
The John the Baptist window is filled with lots of intricate symbols. The ivy in the bottom portion of the window is the symbol of attachment and undying affection and fidelity for ivy, in nature, clings to its support. Forever green, this hardy plant is a symbol of eternal life. Pictured just above the ivy is a crescent moon. The moon is a symbol of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The crescent moon became a popular figure in 15th century painting whenever the Virgin Mary was the theme. “And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars; and she being with child…” (Revelation 12: 1) Some Biblical scholars feel the Song of Solomon 6:10 refers to Mary: “Who is she that looketh forth as the morning rising, fair as the moon.”
Angels with elaborate wings can be seen throughout the window’s design. Wings symbolize divine mission. If you look closely, you’ll also see shamrocks in the window’s design. The three leaves of the shamrock represent the Holy Trinity. Legend has it that St. Patrick used the shamrock to explain the Holy Trinity, three-in-one, when he evangelized Ireland. At the bottom of the window is a row of candles. Candles are a reminder of Jesus’s words: “I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.” (John 8:12) There are five central candies in the window. The number five represents the five wounds of Christ at His crucifixion … his hands, his feet and his side which was pieced with a sword. There are four candies (a total of eight) on either side of the central five. In Christian symbolism, eight is a symbol of the Resurrection for Christ rose from the grave on the eighth day after his entry into Jerusalem. Many baptismal fonts, as ours is, are octagonal for this reason and, because John baptized, it all comes full circle in his window nestled in back of the church near the font.
Jesus said of John the Baptist, “There is no greater man born of woman.” John was martyred by King Herod.
The John the Baptist window was given in loving memory of Mary Blain Gibbons (1872-1944) and Melville Gordon Gibbons (1862-1939). The Gibbons’ son, Arthur Gibbons was a stalwart member of St. Andrew’s all his life serving as senior warden for years and then as senior warden emeritus.
There is a wonderful feeling of movement in the Elijah Window. The saint’s figure rides a fiery chariot, note the two wheels and the flames leaping from the vehicle.
The popular concept is that Elijah rose to heaven in a chariot of fire. He is the only Biblical figure other than Jesus to ascend to heaven rather than just die on earth.
This beautiful window was given in memory of the Rev. F. Barnby Leach who was superintendent of Tampa’s Seaman’s Church Institute for 20 years from 1928 to 1948.
The Elijah Window echoes some of the same Christian symbols seen in the St. John the Baptist window – ivy and angels.
The Turman Window depicts a young woman with angel wings standing on a cloud and carrying a palm branch, the Roman symbol of victory, the Christian symbol of victory over death through Christ’s Resurrection. The angel is obviously in the heaven we usually picture – somewhere, up there, above the clouds. But the cloud has meaning beyond its meteorological location in the skies. The cloud is a symbol of God. In the Old Testament, the Israelites were guided by a cloud during the day as they traveled through the wilderness on route to the Promised Land. Because clouds veil the sky, they portray the unseen image of the Omnipotent God.
The words “Of such is the kingdom of heaven” are bannered across the window below a radiant crown. These words are from Jesus himself when He said “Suffer the little children, and forbid them not to come unto me; for of such is the kingdom of heaven.”
(Matthew 19:14) The crown refers to Jesus’ promise of reward to the faithful who have overcome the powers of death and darkness through their belief in Him: “Be though faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.” (Revelation 2: 10) “Ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.” (I Peter 5: 4)
Sophie P. Wilson Turman (born October 1, 1867, died September 18,1891) was only 24 years old when she died. She was the daughter-in-law of Merobah Hooker Turman Crane, a founding and devoted member of St. Andrew’s. Mrs. Crane hand- wrote the first history of St. Andrew’s which we still have and treasure. Her second husband, Judge H.L. Crane, was elected to St. Andrew’s first vestry and was its first senior warden during its organizational meeting on July 24, 1871.
The beautiful, eagle lectern we still use for the reading of the lessons was given to the church in Mrs. Crane’s honor by the Daughters of the King. It served both our present church and the original wooden St. Andrew’s. Mrs. Crane’s father was William B. Hooker, a Tampa pioneer for whom Hooker’s Point was named.
The Virgin Mary is depicted in a garden in this beautiful portrait of the mother of Jesus Christ. St. Mary is shown in her adult years, probably following the death of her Son. She holds a palm branch, used throughout St. Andrew’s and in Christian art as the symbol of victory over death. She wears a blue cloak, the color traditionally associated with the Virgin Mary, and a very ornate red dress. Though this dress is certainly fit for nobility, it is very unlikely the Virgin Mary wore such garments in this world.
St. Mary is turned toward her left and, interestingly, faces a window of the Virgin Mary as a young, probably teenage girl. In this neighboring window, St. Mary holds a cross over her heart which foretells her grief at the death of her son on the cross.
The window honoring the adult St. Mary memorializes Matilda McKay Wall (born December 12, 1851 and died December 7,1893), a tireless and very devoted member of St. Andrew’s. So loved was this woman that the Daughters of the King gave the High Altar Cross, which is the focal point of the church, in her memory. Additionally, the St. Andrew’s chapter of the Daughters of the King which was organized on January 23,1895 by Cornelia Pickett is known as the Matilda Wall Memorial Chapter. Matilda’s husband, Dr. John Perry Wall, is memorialized in the St. Luke window across the nave. Both windows contain the Christmas rose flower, the symbol of the birth of Jesus.
A young Virgin Mary is depicted in the window memorializing Lida MacGregor who died on July 3, 1897. Lilies, a traditional symbol for St. Mary, are depicted as stalks on the frame of the window – stalks which have not yet flowered as the Virgin Mary has not yet borne Christ. A crown has been incorporated into the top part of the window signifying St. Mary’s place as the Queen of Heaven.
The Virgin Mary, dressed in the blue color traditionally shown with St. Mary, holds a cross over her heart which suggests the prophesy which Simeon made to Mary when Jesus was a newborn infant that “a sword shah pierce through thy own soul.” In other words, that Mary’s heart would be pierced with grief at the crucifixion of her son:
And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Ghost was upon him. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord ‘s Christ.
And he came by the Spirit into the Temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for Him after the custom of the law; then took he Him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said “Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word, for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten the gentiles; and the glory of Thy people Israel.
And Joseph and His mother marveled at those things which were spoken of Him.
And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary His mother, “Behold this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shah be spoken against. Yes, a sword shah pierce through thy own soul also, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.” (Luke 2: 25-35)
The central portion of this Biblical passage, verses 29 through 32, are commonly known as the Song of Simeon, the Nunc dimittis, as is often said during Morning Prayer.
The St. Jude Window, like the window portraying the young Virgin Mary next to it, displays its central figure within a “parenthesis” or vesica pisces. The figure of St. Jude holds a sailing ship, the emblem of St. Jude. St. Jude was a Christian missionary and the ship represents the many and distant journeys he took spreading the word.
Precise identification of St. Jude is not possible from known records. He is referred to in some tradition as “Judas, the kinsman of James.” This could mean son, brother, nephew, cousin, etc. History has possibly known Jude as Lebbedaeus or Thaddaeus. Certain tradition has him as one of Jesus’ Twelve Disciples. Yet another tradition established him as a missionary preacher and healer.
Jude, or Judas (not Iscariot), has been proposed as the one who, at the Last Supper, asked Jesus when Jesus’ own time of trouble was to begin.
Jude’s missionary activities and his Gift of Healing have become part of Christian legend. It is said certain early Christian leaders had dispatched Jude as a missionary to Edessa, a neighboring city-state (kingdom). As a part of his missionary activities, Jude not only preached but, by prayer, was God’s instrument in many cures of physical illness.
The king of Edessa had a chronic illness – some traditions say leprosy. Having heard of Jesus’ healing power, the king wrote to Jesus asking that Jesus come to him and his people. Jesus declined saying His time on earth had almost run out but that after His death He would send someone to the king. When the king heard of Jude’s activities among the people of his kingdom, he accepted Jude as the teacher/healer whom Jesus had promised. Jude is credited as the effective instrument of many many healings – not only of the king of Edessa and his people but also in the many lands to which Jude traveled as a preaching-teaching-healing missionary.
The St. Jude Window is the newest window in the church. Given in honor of Anthony Joseph (Tony) Grimaldi (January 11, 1904 – October 31, 1980) it replaced the Isaiah Window which featured the words from Isaiah 40:11, “He shall gather the lambs with his arm and carry them in his bosom.”
The St. Jude Window was built by Wippels Studio, Exeter, England.
The three windows on the north wall in the Chapel of the Resurrection were illuminated in an address by the Rev. Martin J. Bram, rector of St. Andrew’s, on the occasion of the dedication of the McKay and Lykes windows on Sexagesima Sunday, February 13,1944. The following is an excerpt from that address which details these wonderful windows far better than anyone almost 50 years later could attempt:
“First let us take in the General Theme of all the windows.
The name of the Chapel in the north transept is the Chapel of the Resurrection. And so, the general theme of the windows is The Community of the Resurrection.
Let us begin with the large, center window. It represents St. Michael and the Dragon. St. Michael is one of the chief “princes” or archangels of the heavenly host. A guardian angel. He holds the secret of the mighty word by which God created the heaven and the earth. He is the guardian of the redeemed souls against his old enemy the Prince of Hell. The dragon is the power of evil. The greedy withholder of good things from men. This great dragon was cast out of heaven; and so came salvation and strength and the kingdom of heaven, and as the writer of the Book of Revelation says, ‘Rejoice therefore ye heavens and ye that dwell in them.’ (Revelation 12: 7,10,12)
So, we have on each side therefore two windows depicting the rejoicing in heaven in the Community of Saints. On the left (the McKay Window) the background of the Old Testament, the joyful song and praise of the Venite, Psalm 95, ‘O Come let us sing unto the Lord, let us heartily rejoice in the strength of our Salvation.’
Passing over to the window on the right (the Lykes Window), we have the Revelation of the Future to St. John who ‘Heard as it were the Voice of a Great Multitude saying, ‘Allelulia, for the Lord Cod Omnipotent reigneth.’
The three windows draw together in one theme.
Now let us take each of the side windows in detail.
The St. Michael and the Dragon Window memorializes Madison Dobson.
The Venite Window, built by the J. R Lamb Studio, was given by Charles and Irene McKay. Charles was the grandson of Capt. James McKay and the son of John Angus McKay who was a master mariner, deputy customs collector in Tampa during the 1870s, a contractor for the H.B. Plant system and proprietor of the famed Orange Grove Hotel which stood near what is now the Tampa City Center. Charles McKay was president of Bentley-Gray Dry Goods Company and of Maas Brothers following the death of the brothers. He helped organize the South Florida Fair and Gasparilla Association and led the Gasparilla Parade for many years as grand marshal. Among his many other memberships and accomplishments, Charles McKay served St. Andrew’s faithfully as senior warden for 17 years.
The Great Multitude Window and the Sanctuary Light were given in memory of Howell Tyson Lykes Jr. (1879-1942). Mr. Lykes was one of the seven Lykes brothers, the son of Almeria Belle McKay Lykes and Dr. Howell Tyson Lykes Sr. and the grandson of Capt. James McKay. He is the father of Louise Lykes Ferguson and Jean Lykes Kendrick. Mr. Lykes was first vice president of Lykes Brothers and an officer and director of the various Lykes companies as the business expanded. He also served as an officer and director of The First National Bank of Tampa, now First Florida. He was married to Stella Long, an active and devoted member of St. Andrew’s for whom the lanterns in the church were given on May 16,1956.
The upper portion in each represents the heavenly tasks. In the Venite window to the left at the very top, in the arch, are the cosmic stellar mansions – a sky and stars representing Heaven. Heaven, God’s abode.
Here the Eternal Youth of the Soul in God’s presence gives praise with Lute, Cymbals and Harp, making a ‘joyful noise.’ To the right is the five petaled rose of Christ’s love. It is the Rose of Sharon. It symbolizes heavenly bliss and love. Placed here in the Old Testament background it also implies that Christ was Lord before ever the earth was made.
Now it is interesting to see that this mystic rose rests on the moon calyx or crescent. This has special significance; for the crescent has always been symbolic of the Virgin Mary. But the crescent here is supported by stem and seed. May this not represent the Rod of Jesse and the Seed of David; for just below the seed we have the Spinner of the Web of Destiny and the Web itself, standing for the Messianic Promise that out of the House of David should come a Saviour of the people. The Annointed One, destined to come from Heaven to Redeem the World.
The middle section represents Sacrifice. The Web of Destiny implies that God was required to humble Himself to be born of a Virgin. So likewise the early followers were warned by Christ that they too would be sacrificed. Here are three English martyrs, St. Alban, King Edmond and St. Margaret. English martyrs, because our Church is the child of the Church of England.
St. Alban was the first Martyr of Britain (286-303 A.D.). King Edmond (840-870 A.D.) who learned the Psalter by heart, was the great king who tried to stem the tide of pillage and destruction of the heathen Danes who invaded East Anglia in 870. He was captured, tortured and finally beheaded. St. Margaret (circa 278 A.D.) was universally honored and especially popular in England. About two hundred and fifty churches are named in her honor.
She is not infrequently represented as standing on a serpent or dragon and piercing it with a long cross to signify that by virtue of the cross she overcame the temptations of the evil one. Often she carries a palm. Here all three martyrs carry palms as a symbol of martyrdom and victory over pain and sin.
The theme of the lower section is Dedication. In the top center is the cross with the seven flames. The seven gifts of the spirit, bestowed in Confirmation when we dedicate ourselves and confirm our baptismal vows.
We are reminded of the Veni Creator, used in services of Ordination, Sung by the Bishop, ‘Come Holy Ghost our souls inspire, And lighten with celestial fire. Thou the Anointing Spirit art, Who dost they seven-fold gift impart. They blessed unction from above, is comfort, Life and fire of Love. Enable with perpetual Light the dullness of our blinded sight.’ Love, Life and Light.
So from the Cross comes Love. The figure to the left represents Mother and Life. The figure to the right is Father and Light. The two small figures receive the Life and Light and Love that is being bestowed on them. These two from left to right are St. Bride, builder of the Rills and St. Columba the transcriber of the Psalms. His name comes from the Colum or dove which means peace and cairn. So we pass from the Angels of Perturbation and Concern on the left to the Mood of Cairn on the right where we have the three fish, symbols of Christ and the Eternity of the Trinity. The fish as the symbol of Christ is in itself interesting. The initial letters of the words of the Greek phrase which translated are, ‘Jesus Christ, Of God, the Son, Savior’ when put together spell the Greek word for Fish. Insous, Christus, Oeou, Uios, Swtnr. The initial letters are IXOUS which is the Greek word for fish. Said to have been the password to the catacombs.
Coming now to the Revelation window on the right, we see that the theme of the top section is Revelation.
Here we find as we might expect many angels and many angelic heads and wings.
In Christian iconography, angels are messengers from God to human souls. St. John of Damascus describes angels as a reverberation of uncreated light and a reflection of Divinity. A statement which seems safe from any debate.
Ezekiel compared angels to brilliant stones, crystals, flames, lightning, rainbows and clouds.
Here we have all these symbols under the protection of the heavenly domes of the Spirit. There are the crystals and the brilliant colors.
In art, however, the angel of necessity has been endowed with human form and body and given wings to symbolize the swiftness and the constant activity of these heavenly messengers.
Just under the dome is the representation of the rustling of the wings as the angels do their work of revelling. To the right and in support of them is the Portal of the Lotus Stems.
So often the Lotus is confused with Homer’s Lotus Eaters, who lived in fairyland and forgot everything.
That is not the conventionalized symbol of the Lotus. The Lotus has always held a distinguished place in symbolism. Mahomet says the Lotus tree stands in the seventh heaven – the highest heaven. Associated with the Nile, it implies the Giver of Life.
Jamblichus says it represents the motion of intellect. Here with God’s messengers above it, it is the intellectual sovereignty moving out from God. Revelation does not displace intellect and reason, it reigns over them.
Standing in his robe of white is St. John receiving the Revelation and acting as Narrator. The Hearer stands to the left.
In the middle section amidst the heavenly mansions, is the procession of old and young hearing testimony, lifting as it were ‘The Voice of a great multitude saying, Alleluia for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.’
In the upper left hand corner is the Larynx Portal, the larynx which is the organ of the voice. We see the book marked Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending. The devout recognition and adoration of God which is the first and only never ending duty of all his creatures.
In the lower section is the emphasis of the Divinity. ‘The Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.’ The protecting angels reigning over the tender souls who come in joyful procession with offerings of garlands, book and flower. Offerings of the Good, the True and the Beautiful. The Good Faith, the True Book and the Beautiful Creation which all come from God and which we here on earth strive with his grace to dedicate in offerings to Him.
So from the Praise of the Eternal Youth of the Soul to the Divine Gifts in joyful procession; from the Revelation to the Consecration of Love, Life and Light, we find the strength of our Salvation, let us heartily rejoice with the heavenly host who with one voice are continually saying, ‘Alleluia, the Lord God Omnipotent Reigneth.”
Jesus is portrayed in a garden setting holding the hand of and comforting a young woman on her knees. A radiant stream of light beams down on the pair from the top of the window. The window is predominately blue with the figure of Jesus standing out, clothed in red. Jesus wears a halo, or nimbus, which has a red background trisected by three yellow beams. In Christian symbology, the tri-radiant halo is reserved for the three persons of the Holy Trinity.
The quotation recited in the lower right of the window is from Verse 10 of Psalm 139, “Even there shall Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand shall hold me.” The earlier verses of the psalm extol God’s omnipresence, His omniscience and His omnipotence. The verses acknowledge that we can neither escape nor hide from Him. They similarly express great comfort that if, in our need, we call out to Him, He is with us. The Psalm of David assures us that we are not alone in this world.
The window, another created by the J.R. Lama- Studios of Tenafly, New Jersey, is absolutely filled with Christian symbolism. It is probably the most intricate, in terms of signs and symbols, in the entire church, so be sure to look over every inch.
In this garden setting, many parts of the nature God created are incorporated in the window. You’ll see seven-leafed ferns. The number seven is often used to denote perfection or faultlessness. Seven also stands for the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit as given in Revelation 5: 12: “power, and riches, and wisdom, and might, and honor, and glory, and blessing.”
There are a number of different flowers throughout the window. Flowers in general represent the beauty of God and the resurrection of Jesus. Individual flowers have specific meanings. In the window are five-petaled flowers, blood red, representing the five wounds Jesus suffered when he was crucified. The poinsettias (with artistic license painted a blue hue) represent the Nativity. The most popular of Christmas plants, its unusual flaming star-shaped blossom reaches its Peak of beauty during the Christmas season. The star design is a natural reminder of the star that shown down on the inn at Bethlehem on the night the Christ child was born, the star the Three Wise Men followed. The iris is frequently used instead of the lily in pictures of the Virgin Mary. It was first utilized in Flemish art. The name “iris” means “sword lily” and refers to the sorrow of the Virgin Mary at the Passion of Christ. A shamrock shape can also be seen among the flowers. The shamrock refers to the Holy Trinity – three separate, yet inseparable parts. Thons are also shown in the stained glass, an obvious reference to the crown of thorns placed on Jesus’ head at his crucifixion to mock him as the King of the Jews.
The sign of the fish can be seen scratched in the border and around the window much like it was scratched in the sand when the early Christians encountered each other. In the early centuries of the Church, it was dangerous to be a Christian. Followers of Christ were persecuted, killed or thrown to the lions. So the early Christians developed secret symbols and signs to identify each other. One was the sign of the fish which followers of the faith would draw in the sand. Some say it was the password for entering the catacombs. To the non-Christians, the symbol only meant a fish but to the Christian, it meant the sign of a true follower of Christ. The tradition of the fish and its symbolism remain with us today and because St. Andrew, our namesake, was a fisherman, the fish holds a special place within our church. Also pictured in the Hansbrough glass is a fish leaping out of the waters perhaps a sign that Christianity can thankfully now be enjoyed in the open.
Mary Katherine Hansbrough is memorialized in the window by her children. Mrs. Hansbrough was such a devoted member of St. Andrew’s that a service chapter, the Mary Katherine Chapter was named in her honor. Mrs. Hansbrough organized and served as patroness of this chapter and never missed a meeting. The chapter donated the Chapel of the Resurrection to St. Andrew’s in 1943 in Mrs. Hansbrough’s honor and had the chapel’s upkeep as its project for as long as the chapter was in existence. Unfortunately, the members of the Mary Katherine Chapter have all gone on.
The large, predominately blue (blue being the color of purity, of heavenly love, of unveiled truth and of the Virgin Mary) window portraying the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, holds a place of honor next to the High Altar. On the other side of the altar is a window portraying St. John. These two historic figures are often paired in art as Jesus paired them in life:
But standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple (St. John) whom he loved standing near, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold your son!”
Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mot her!” And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home. (John 19: 25-27)
This beautiful portrait of St. Mary, by the J.R. Lamb Studio, is filled with symbolism. The Virgin Mary holds her arms folded across her chest. This sign, like the sign of the fish, was a way of secretly acknowledging a fellow Christian. The arms formed the sign of the cross, albeit a little tilted to one side. Legend has it that the design of the pretzel, then made with unleavened bread, came about during the early days of Christianity. The curved lines of the pretzel resemble the crossed arms of that secret sign.
A grasshopper, or locust, can be seen in the lower section of the window. This lowly insect has developed as a symbol of the conversion of all nations to Christianity. The words of Proverbs 30: 27, “The locusts have no king, yet go they forth all of them by bands,” have been interpreted as referring to the nations formerly without Christ as their spiritual King. Illustrating the thought that Christ will become the spiritual King of all nations, artists frequently portray the infant Jesus at the Nativity holding a grasshopper in his hand.
Butterflies have a place in this portrait of the Virgin Mary and in Christian symbolism. Because of its three stages of life: 1. the caterpillar, 2. the entombment in the cocoon and 3. the emergence in new life as the beautiful butterfly, the butterfly is a natural symbol of the Resurrection.
The daisy, because if its sweet simplicity, is a symbol of the innocence of the Christ Child. It remains a symbol of innocence in general and of youth. Artists in the Middle Ages used the daisy in their paintings of the Adoration of the Christ Child and other portraits of the infant Jesus.
Birds are used to represent the soul in early Christian symbolism. Their wings indicate the free flight of man’s soul from the imprisonment of his body.
There are a number of medallion-like accents on the Virgin Mary’s garment. One cluster resembles a stylized passion flower. The passion flower is a symbol of the suffering of Jesus at the time of his arrest, trial and crucifixion. Many attribute special meanings to the different parts of the flower. The ten petals refer to the ten disciples who did not deny (St. Peter) or betray (Judas) Christ. The rays of the flower are shaped like the crown of thorns and its leaf is shaped somewhat like a spear.
Another medallion displays a six-pointed star generally known as the Star of David. Jesus was of the house and lineage of David but this image also reflects the coupling of two equilateral triangles, the triangles being the symbol of the Holy Trinity. The six-pointed star is also sometimes called the Creator’s Star because the earth was created in six days.
A dandelion can also be seen in the lower section of the window. This unique flower has a beautiful yellow blossom which matures into the white spores we and the wind like to blow. The spores are carried off in the air to grow farther and farther afield much like the Christian Gospel has been carried far afield from where it began.
The Virgin Mary Window was given in memory of Kenneth Ivor McKay (January 21,1881 – August 6,1945) and Olive Petty McKay (September 10, 1892 – October 21, 1971). Mr. McKay was the grandson of Capt. James McKay, the son of John Angus McKay and the brother of Charles McKay who, with his wife Irene, gave the Venite Window in the Chapel of the Resurrection to St. Andrew’s. Kenneth McKay’s children are K.I. McKay Jr., Shirley McKay Savage, Herbert G. McKay and Howell Angus McKay.
A prominent attorney, Kenneth McKay headed the law firm of McKay, Whithers and Ramsey which was one of the antecedents of what is now the firm of Macfarlane, Ferguson, Allison and Kelly. Extremely active in civic affairs, he was chairman of the Board of Trustees at the University of Tampa in its formative years and he served on the vestry at St. Andrew’s.
There is a legend that St. Andrew’s has a few windows from the Tiffany Studio. If we do, they are probably these three windows above the High Altar. The windows stand apart from all the others in the church in the depth of the glass, the color, the detail in the portraits and the craftsmanship of the faces.
Each of the three windows over the High Altar has its individual message but they are most meaningful when considered as a triptych. The Moses Window, to the right, represents the Old Testament. St. Matthew, to the left, represents the New Testament. God’s main message to modern man is encompassed in these two Testaments – the Holy Bible. The Resurrection of Jesus as prophesied (Old Testament) and reported (New Testament) in the two Testaments and dramatized in the center window is that one climactic event in all history which binds the two Testaments, each to the other, and which issues a call to all mankind.
St. Matthew Window
In graphic Christian art, there is sometimes a need to include in one picture the personalities of all four Gospel writers. It usually proves clumsy, even confusing. St. Matthew appearing alone is often used as a representative of all four Evangelists. This technique of having St. Matthew represent himself and the other three Gospel writers has been utilized in our altar window. Here, the saint represents the ultimate product of the four Evangelists, the New Testament.
The St. Matthew Window memorializes the Rev. C.W. Memminger, our third priest. Father Memminger served St. Andrew’s Mission on a part-time basis from 1875 to 1877. He returned briefly in 1880 to lead services.
Memminger came to Tampa from Charleston, S.C .in March of 1875 looking for a winter home with a good climate. He settled at Gadsden Point, just beyond Ballast Point, where he and his family developed orange groves. Fully appreciating the situation of St. Andrew’s people, he consented to the vestry s solicitations and gave a monthly service for the mission.
At this time in her life, St. Andrew’s had no permanent church home. The congregation had to beg and borrow places to worship. Sometimes these were not readily given – until Father Memminger came to town. The priest, you see, was the son of the Secretary of the Treasury for the Confederacy, a cause espoused by most people in the city. Being of such prestigious ancestry, he was very welcomed in Tampa and had little trouble finding a place to hold his services. All services during Father Memminger’s time were held at the Baptist church which had disbanded for a few years.
The Moses Window
The figure of Moses, the law giver, clutches one of the tablets containing the Ten Commandments Cod gave him on Mt. Sinai. In this picture Moses wears a halo. This is unusual but not unknown in Christian art.
While Moses probably produced relatively little, by word length, of the Old Testament. it is a common acceptance the “four books of Moses” are the bases of the Old Testament even though most of this was written long after Moses’ death. With or without the tablets, Moses is often pictorially used alone to represent the whole of the Old Testament.
The First Easter
The window depicting the first Easter morning is similar, symbolically, to the He Is Risen Window on the south wall of the nave. The main difference is the women who had gone to Jesus’s sepulcher on the first Easter morning are included in the portrait. It is not the angel alone. There are three women in the stained glass picture indicating St. Mark’s version of the Easter story is the basis for the window. St. Mark described three women, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome, as coming to prepare Jesus body for burial. St. Matthew’s version of the Easter story describes only two women.
This central window in the High Altar triptych is larger than the other two windows and a bit more detailed. Be sure to look at the background scene. There is the hill where Jesus died. The three crosses, a more earthy triptych, stand empty and silent in the blue and orange light of sunrise.
The First Easter Window is dedicated to the Rev. Dr. William Wilson DeHart who loved and served St. Andrew’s from 1894 until his death on September 15, 1913. Father DeHart was with us when our present church was built in 1904. He was here when St. Andrew’s Mission became a parish on Feb. 4,1907 with a congregation of 285 communicants and 352 baptized persons.
Work for St. Andrew’s was a family affair for the DeHarts. His mother-in-law, Lucy Aycock, lived with the DeHarts and kept a rose garden in bloom between the rectory and the church and supplied the altar with flowers for years. The Baptismal Font was given to the church in her honor. Mrs. DeHart gave her time and energy generously to all sorts of church projects and was a treasured member of the congregation.
DeHart Ayala, our Senior Warden Emeritus, was named after Father DeHart. Mrs. DeHart gave him Father DeHart’s signet ring just before her death. He has recently donated it to St. Andrew’s.
St. John the Apostle, the son of Zebedee, was about 20 years old when Jesus was crucified. The beloved Apostle is shown at that time of his life in this impressive portrait. Portrayals of St. John in his later years generally show him with an eagle, his symbol as the author of one of the four gospels. St. John’s gospel is said to be the most spiritual of the four, taking the reader to the greatest spiritual heights. Since the eagle is said to fly closer to the heavens, and God, than any other bird, St. John is paired with this animal. But the St. John of the window is not old enough to have yet written the gospel. Our two greatest clues as to his identity are the “St. J” pictured in the glass in the upper right hand corner and the fact that he is so prominently placed next to the window to the Virgin Mary. At Jesus’ instructions from the cross, “Son, behold they mother” from John’s own gospel, St. John took the Virgin Mary in as his own mother after Jesus’ death.
The window memorializes Capt. Kendall King Fish (April 6,1922 – April 24,1945) who was killed in World War II and his sinter Zoe Fish Marvil (Dune 6,1920 – Sept. 8,1989). The Christmas trees bordering her name are a remembrance of Mrs. Marvil’s love of the mountains of North Carolina.
The newest windows in the church are the clerestory windows which line the top section of the nave. The windows depict the story of our namesake, St. Andrew. Stained glass portrayals of St. Andrew:
1) as a fisherman
2) Jesus calling Andrew and Peter – the gift of Leslie Peter in honor of his father
3) St. Andrew bringing the boy with the loaves and fishes to Jesus – a gift in thanksgiving by Nannie and Mack Christian, Treasurer Emeritus
4) St. Andrew preaching in Greece
5) the flagellation of St. Andrew and 6) St. Andrew crucified.
These windows are the work of the Wippels Studio in Exeter, England. The same studio which created the portrait of St. Jude on the north wall.